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How can I get the temperature of the CPU on the Debian system? Is there is any GUI tool or command for this?

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You can run the sensors command on the terminal to check the CPU temperature. It should be installed by default. I tested it on Debian9 and Ubuntu20 and it worked without any error.

$ sensors

Adapter: ACPI interface
in0:          12.20 V  

Adapter: ISA adapter
Package id 0:  +75.0°C  (high = +84.0°C, crit = +100.0°C)
Core 0:        +75.0°C  (high = +84.0°C, crit = +100.0°C)
Core 1:        +66.0°C  (high = +84.0°C, crit = +100.0°C)
Core 2:        +70.0°C  (high = +84.0°C, crit = +100.0°C)
Core 3:        +64.0°C  (high = +84.0°C, crit = +100.0°C)

Adapter: ACPI interface
temp1:        +69.0°C  (crit = +127.0°C)

If you want to keep an eye on change in CPU temperature, you can run the following command on the terminal:

watch sensors